The Oyster Perpetual Submariner and Oyster Perpetual Submariner Date, archetypes of the divers’ watch, epitomize the historic link between Rolex and underwater exploration.
Launched in 1953, the Submariner was the first divers’ wristwatch waterproof to a depth of 100 metres (330 feet). Just a year after its launch, its waterproofness was increased to a depth of 200 metres (660 feet), and it was soon fitted with other technical innovations, such as a luminescent disc on the hour hand to clearly distinguish it from the minute hand, and a crown guard. Some years later, in 1969, Rolex unveiled the Submariner Date, a version of the model with a date function. Its waterproofness, then guaranteed to 200 metres, was extended in 1979 to a depth of 300 metres (1,000 feet). The waterproofness of the Submariner achieved the same depth in 1989.
Since then, the two watches have moved well beyond the marine world. Over time, they have become the watches of choice for a wide range of sports and other activities – indeed, true archetypes of the action watch.


The unidirectional rotatable bezel of the Submariner and Submariner Date is equipped with a 60-minute graduated monobloc Cerachrom insert – in black, blue or green – that allows divers to monitor their time underwater. This patented insert is made of an extremely hard, virtually scratchproof ceramic whose colour is unaffected by ultraviolet rays. In addition, thanks to its chemical composition, the high-tech ceramic is inert and cannot corrode. The graduations and the numerals are moulded into the ceramic and coloured with gold or platinum using a PVD (Physical Vapour Deposition) process. The bezel’s knurled edge offers excellent grip and can be manipulated with ease, even when wearing gloves.

In addition to its functions and its intrinsic technical qualities, the bezel of the Submariner and Submariner Date contributes to the very strong visual identity of these two models.


In the underwater depths, being able to read the time with absolute certainty is a matter of survival. Great attention was paid to the legibility of the Submariner and Submariner Date: the dial of these divers’ watches features a pared-back design and incorporates the Chromalight display. The simple forms of the hour markers – triangles, circles and rectangles – and the hands, which are clearly differentiated in size and shape, are filled or coated with a luminescent material emitting a long-lasting blue glow – for up to two times longer than traditional phosphorescent materials. On the bezel, the triangular ‘zero’ marker of the graduation is visible in the dark thanks to an embedded capsule containing the same luminescent material.


Like all Rolex watches, the Submariner and Submariner Date are covered by the Superlative Chronometer certification redefined by Rolex in 2015. This exclusive designation attests that every watch leaving the brand’s workshops has successfully undergone a series of tests conducted by Rolex in its own laboratories and according to its own criteria. These certification tests apply to the fully assembled watch, after casing the movement, guaranteeing superlative performance on the wrist in terms of precision, power reserve, waterproofness and self-winding. The Superlative Chronometer status is symbolized by the green seal that comes with every Rolex watch and is coupled with an international five-year guarantee.

The precision of every movement – officially certified as a chronometer by the Swiss Official Chronometer Testing Institute (COSC) – is tested a second time by Rolex after being cased, to ensure that it meets criteria that are far stricter than those of the official certification. The precision of a Rolex Superlative Chronometer is of the order of −2/+2 seconds per day – the rate deviation tolerated by the brand for a finished watch is significantly smaller than that accepted by COSC for official certification of the movement alone.

The Superlative Chronometer certification testing is carried out after casing using state-of-the-art equipment specially developed by Rolex and according to an exclusive protocol that simulates the conditions in which a watch is actually worn and more closely represents real-life experience. The entirely automated series of tests also checks the waterproofness, the self-winding capacity and the power reserve of 100 per cent of Rolex watches. These tests systematically complement the qualification testing during development and production, in order to ensure the watches’ reliability, robustness, and resistance to strong magnetic fields and to shocks.


The Oyster case of the Submariner and Submariner Date, 41 mm in diameter and guaranteed waterproof to a depth of 300 metres (1,000 feet), is a paragon of robustness and reliability. The middle case is crafted from a solid block of Oystersteel or 18 ct gold. The case back, edged with fine fluting, is hermetically screwed down with a special tool that allows only certified Rolex watchmakers to access the movement. The Triplock winding crown, fitted with a triple waterproofness system and protected by a crown guard that is an integral part of the middle case, screws down securely against the case. The crystal, with a Cyclops lens fitted on the Submariner Date for easy reading of the date, is made of virtually scratchproof sapphire and benefits from an anti-reflective coating. The waterproof Oyster case provides optimal protection for the movement it houses.

CALIBRES 3230 AND 3235

The Submariner is equipped with calibre 3230, while the Submariner Date is fitted with calibre 3235, self-winding mechanical movements entirely developed and manufactured by Rolex. Consummate demonstrations of technology, these movements carry a number of patents. They offer outstanding performance, particularly in terms of precision, power reserve, convenience and reliability.

Calibres 3230 and 3235 incorporate the patented Chronergy escapement, made of nickel-phosphorus, which combines high energy efficiency with great dependability and is also resistant to strong magnetic fields.

These movements include the blue Parachrom hairspring, manufactured by Rolex in a paramagnetic alloy. In addition to resisting strong magnetic fields, this hairspring offers great stability in the face of temperature variations as well as high resistance to shocks. It is equipped with a Rolex overcoil, ensuring the calibres’ regularity in any position.

The oscillator of these two calibres has a large balance wheel with variable inertia regulated extremely precisely via gold Microstella nuts. It is held firmly in place by a height-adjustable traversing bridge enabling very stable positioning to increase shock resistance. The oscillator is also mounted on the Rolex-designed, patented high-performance Paraflex shock absorbers, further enhancing the movements’ shock resistance.

Calibres 3230 and 3235 are fitted with a self-winding system via a Perpetual rotor, which ensures continuous winding of the mainspring by harnessing the movements of the wrist to provide constant energy. Since 2023, their oscillating weight has been fitted with an optimized ball bearing. Thanks to their barrel architecture and the escapement’s superior efficiency, the power reserve of these two movements extends to approximately 70 hours.

The movement of the Submariner and that of the Submariner Date will be seen only by certified Rolex watchmakers, yet they are beautifully finished and decorated. Since 2023, they have also been marked with the words ‘Chronometer Perpetual’ and ‘Superlative Adjusted’ engraved respectively on the oscillating weight and on the bridges.


The Submariner and Submariner Date are fitted on the three-piece link Oyster bracelet. Equipped with a Rolex-designed, patented Oysterlock safety clasp that prevents accidental opening, this bracelet is furnished with the Rolex Glidelock extension system, also developed by the brand and patented. On the Oyster bracelet, this inventive toothed mechanism has 10 notches of approximately 2 mm, allowing the bracelet length to be effortlessly adjusted up to some 20 mm. The watch can therefore be worn over a diving suit up to 3 mm thick.

On the 18 ct gold versions of the Submariner Date, the Oyster bracelet has ceramic inserts – designed by Rolex and patented – inside the links to enhance its flexibility on the wrist and its longevity.


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